Eastern European Banking Model

A traditional banking model in a CEEC (Central and Eastern European Country) consisted of a central bank and several purpose banks, one dealing with individuals’ savings and other banking needs, and another focusing on foreign financial activities, etc. The central bank provided most of the commercial banking needs of enterprises in addition to other functions. During the late 1980s, the CEECs modified this earlier structure by taking all the commercial banking activities of the central bank and transferring them to new commercial banks. In most countries the new banks were set up along industry lines, although in Poland a regional approach has been adopted.

On the whole, these new stale-owned commercial banks controlled the bulk of financial transactions, although a few ‘de novo banks’ were allowed in Hungary and Poland. Simply transferring existing loans from the central bank to the new state-owned commercial banks had its problems, since it involved transferring both ‘good’ and ‘bad’ assets. Moreover, each bank’s portfolio was restricted to the enterprise and industry assigned to them and they were not allowed to deal with other enterprises outside their remit.

As the central banks would always ‘bale out’ troubled state enterprises, these commercial banks cannot play the same role as commercial banks in the West. CEEC commercial banks cannot foreclose on a debt. If a firm did not wish to pay, the state-owned enterprise would, historically, receive further finance to cover its difficulties, it was a very rare occurrence for a bank to bring about the bankruptcy of a firm. In other words, state-owned enterprises were not allowed to go bankrupt, primarily because it would have affected the commercial banks, balance sheets, but more importantly, the rise in unemployment that would follow might have had high political costs.

What was needed was for commercial banks to have their balance sheets ‘cleaned up’, perhaps by the government purchasing their bad loans with long-term bonds. Adopting Western accounting procedures might also benefit the new commercial banks.

This picture of state-controlled commercial banks has begun to change during the mid to late 1990s as the CEECs began to appreciate that the move towards market-based economies required a vibrant commercial banking sector. There are still a number of issues lo be addressed in this sector, however. For example, in the Czech Republic the government has promised to privatize the banking sector beginning in 1998. Currently the banking sector suffers from a number of weaknesses. A number of the smaller hanks appear to be facing difficulties as money market competition picks up, highlighting their tinder-capitalization and the greater amount of higher-risk business in which they are involved. There have also been issues concerning banking sector regulation and the control mechanisms that are available. This has resulted in the government’s proposal for an independent securities commission to regulate capital markets.

The privatization package for the Czech Republic’s four largest banks, which currently control about 60 percent of the sector’s assets, will also allow foreign banks into a highly developed market where their influence has been marginal until now. It is anticipated that each of the four banks will be sold to a single bidder in an attempt to create a regional hub of a foreign bank’s network. One problem with all four banks is that inspection of their balance sheets may throw up problems which could reduce the size of any bid. All four banks have at least 20 percent of their loans as classified, where no interest has been paid for 30 days or more. Banks could make provisions to reduce these loans by collateral held against them, but in some cases the loans exceed the collateral. Moreover, getting an accurate picture of the value of the collateral is difficult since bankruptcy legislation is ineffective. The ability to write off these bad debts was not permitted until 1996, but even if this route is taken then this will eat into the banks’ assets, leaving them very close to the lower limit of 8 percent capital adequacy ratio. In addition, the ‘commercial’ banks have been influenced by the action of the national bank, which in early 1997 caused bond prices to fall, leading to a fall in the commercial banks’ bond portfolios. Thus the banking sector in the Czech Republic still has a long way to go.

In Hungary the privatization of the banking sector is almost complete. However, a state rescue package had to be agreed at the beginning of 1997 for the second-largest state bank, Postabank, owned indirectly by the main social security bodies and the post office, and this indicates the fragility of this sector. Outside of the difficulties experienced with Postabank, the Hungarian banking system has been transformed. The rapid move towards privatization resulted from the problems experienced by the state-owned banks, which the government bad to bail out, costing it around 7 percent of GDP. At that stage it was possible that the banking system could collapse and government funding, although saving the banks, did not solve the problems of corporate governance or moral hazard. Thus the privatization process was started in earnest. Magyar Kulkereskedelmi Bank (MKB) was sold to Bayerische Landesbank and the EBDR in 1994, Budapest Bank was bought by GE Capital and Magyar Hitel Bank was bought by ABN-AMRO. In November 1997 the state completed the last stage of the sale of the state savings bank (OTP), Hungary’s largest bank. The state, which dominated the banking system three years ago, now only retains a majority stake in two specialist banks, the Hungarian Development Bank and Eximbank.

The move towards, and success of privatization can be seen in the balance sheets of the banks, which showed an increase in post-tax profits of 45 percent in 1996. These banks are also seeing higher savings and deposits and a strong rise in demand for corporate and retail lending. In addition, the growth in competition in the banking sector has led to a narrowing of the spreads between lending and deposit rates, and the further knock-on effect of mergers and small-hank closures. Over 50 percent of Hungarian bank assets are controlled by foreign-owned banks, and this has led to Hungarian banks offering services similar to those expected in many Western European countries. Most of the foreign-owned but mainly Hungarian-managed banks were recapitalized after their acquisition and they have spent heavily on staff training and new information technology systems. From 1998, foreign banks will be free to open branches in Hungary, thus opening up the domestic banking market to full competition.

As a whole, the CEECs have come a long way since the early 1990s in dealing with their banking problems. For some countries the process of privatization still has a long way to go but others such as Hungary have moved quickly along the process of transforming their banking systems in readiness for their entry into the EU.

Read More

Impact Of Technology In Banking

In the world of banking and finance nothing stands still. The biggest change of all is in the, scope of the business of banking. Banking in its traditional from is concerned with the acceptance of deposits from the customers, the lending of surplus of deposited money to suitable customers who wish to borrow and transmission of funds. Apart from traditional business, banks now a days provide a wide range of services to satisfy the financial and non financial needs of all types of customers from the smallest account holder to the largest company and in some cases of non customers. The range of services offered differs from bank to bank depending mainly on the type and size of the bank.

RESERVE BANK’S EARLY INITIATIVES
As a central bank in a developing country, the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) has adopted development of the banking and financial market as one of its prime objectives. “Institutional development” was the hallmark of this approach from 1950s to 1970s. In the 1980s, the Reserve Bank focused on “improvements in the productivity” of the banking sector. Being convinced that technology is the key for improving in productivity, the Reserve Bank took several initiatives to popularize usage of technology by banks in India.

Periodically, almost once in five years since the early 1980s, the Reserve Bank appointed committees and working Groups to deliberate on and recommend the appropriate use of technology by banks give the circumstances and the need. These committees are as follows:
-Rangarajan committee -1 in early 1980s.
-Rangarajan committee -11 in late 1980s.
-Saraf working group in early 1990s.
-Vasudevan working group in late 1990s.
-Barman working group in early 2000s.

Based on the recommendations of these committees and working groups, the Reserve Bank issued suitable guidelines for the banks. In the 1980s, usage of technology for the back office operations of the banks predominated the scene. It was in the form of accounting of transactions and collection of MIS. In the inter-bank payment systems, it was in the form of clearing and settlement using the MICR technology.

Two momentous decisions of the Reserve Bank in the 1990s changed the scenario for ever there are:
a) The prescription of compulsory usage of technology in full measure by the new private sector banks as a precondition of the license and
b) The establishment of an exclusive research institute for banking technology institute for development and Research in Banking Technology.

As the new private sector banks came on the scene as technology-savvy banks and offered several innovative products at the front office for the customers based on technology, the demonstration effect caught on the reset of the banks. Multi channel offerings like machine based (ATMs and pc-Banking), card based (credit/Debit/Smart cards), Communication based (Tele-Banking and Internet Banking) ushered in Anytime and Anywhere Banking by the banks in India. The IDRBT has been instrumental in establishing a safe and secure, state of the art communication backbone in the from of the Indian Financial NETwork (INFINET) as a closed user group exclusively for the banking and financial sector in India.

CHANGING FACE OF BANKING SERVICES
Liberalization brought several changes to Indian service industry. Probably Indian banking industry learnt a tremendous lesson. Pre-liberalization, all we did at a bank was deposit and withdraw money. Service standards were pathetic, but all we could do was grin and bear it. Post-liberalization, the tables have turned. It’s a consumer oriented market there.

Technology is revolutionizing every field of human endeavor and activity. One of them is introduction of information technology into capital market. The internet banking is changing the banking industry and is having the major effects on banking relationship. Web is more important for retail financial services than for many other industries.

Retail banking in India is maturing with time, several products, which further could be customized. Most happening sector is housing loan, which is witnessing a cut-throat competition. The home loans are very popular as they help you to realize your most cherished dream. Interest rates are coming down and market has seen some innovative products as well. Other retail banking products are personal loan, education loan and vehicles loan. Almost every bank and financial institution is offering these products, but it is essential to understand the different aspects of these loan products, which are not mentioned in their colored advertisements.

PLASTIC MONEY
Plastic money was a delicious gift to Indian market. Giving respite from carrying too much cash. Now several new features added to plastic money to make it more attractive. It works on formula purchase now repay later. There are different facts of plastic money credit card is synonyms of all.

Credit card is a financial instrument, which can be used more than once to borrow money or buy products and services on credit. Banks, retail stores and other businesses generally issue these. On the basis of their credit limit, they are of different kinds like classic, gold or silver.

Charged cards-these too carry almost same features as credit cards. The fundamental difference is you can not defer payments charged generally have higher credit limits or some times no credit limits.
Debit cards-this card is may be characterized as accountholder’s mobile ATM, for this you have to have account with any bank offering credit card.

Over the years, the banking sector in India has seen a no. of changes. Most of the banks have begun to take an innovative approach towards banking with the objective of creating more value for customers and consequently, the banks. Some of the significant changes in the banking sector are discussed below.

MOBILE BANKING
Taking advantages of the booming market for mobile phones and cellular services, several banks have introduced mobile banking which allows customers to perform banking transactions using their mobile phones. For instances HDFC has introduced SMS services. Mobile banking has been especially targeted at people who travel frequently and to keep track of their banking transaction.

RURAL BANKING
One of the innovative scheme to be launched in rural banking was the KISAN CREDIT CARD (KCC) SCHMME started in fiscal 1998-1999 by NABARD. KCC mode it easier for framers to purchase important agricultural inputs. In addition to regular agricultural loans, banks to offer several other products geared to the needs of the rural people.

Private sector Banks also realized the potential in rural market. In the early 2000’s ICICI bank began setting up internet kiosks in rural Tamilnadu along with ATM machines.

NRI SERVICES
With a substantial number of Indians having relatives abroad, banks have begun to offer service that allows expatriate Indians to send money more conveniently to relatives India which is one of the major improvements in money transfer.

E-BANKING
E-Banking is becoming increasingly popular among retail banking customers. E-Banking helps in cutting costs by providing cheaper and faster ways of delivering products to customers. It also helps the customer to choose the time, place and method by which he wants to use the services and gives effect to multichannel delivery of service by the bank. This E-Banking is driven by twin engine of “customer-pull and Bank-push”.

CONCLUSION
Technology has been one of the most important factors for the development of mankind. Information and communication technology is the major advent in the field of technology which is used for access, process, storage and dissemination of information electronically. Banking industry is fast growing with the use of technology in the from of ATMs, on-line banking, Telephone banking, Mobile banking etc., plastic card is one of the banking products that cater to the needs of retail segment has seen its number grow in geometric progression in recent years. This growth has been strongly supported by the development of in the field of technology, without which this could not have been possible of course it will change our lifestyle in coming years.

Read More

The Key Elements of Great

Things to Know about Commercial Tenant Eviction Laws as a Landlord

Not all tenants are capable of paying their rent is it is required. You can think of how your tenant will face the difficult eviction practice if he or she may no longer pay the rent as it is required. Before you begin to conduct the eviction you should ensure you do it in the right way so that you can limit the loss of revenue. Since you will only be required to evict a tenant in the right way, as a landlord you should ensure you know all the essential things on how to evict a tenant. If your tenant has failed to pay the rent, then you can think of knowing all the discussed crucial things about commercial tenant eviction laws before you begin the eviction process.

Before you begin the litigation process the first essential thing to know that is explored in this article is that the tenant who is sued for unpaid rent will be required to pay it during the litigation. Therefore, for you to remain in space if your case has been taken to court, you must ensure you pay the unpaid rent whether you will like it or not since this is a law and it must be followed. You should also know that if you sue a tenant he or she will be allowed to dispute the unpaid amount it seems that it is not the correct figure so that it may be determined by the court. With these reasons, all the tenants who will feel like they must be in space will pay the amount due as you might have expected.

The second thing that you should know about commercial tenant eviction laws is that self-help eviction is not allowed. For you to remove the defaulting tenant as a landlord, you should ensure you first go through the legal process that is explored in the eviction laws. The illegal things that you should avoid as a landlord even though you might have a tenant who is no longer paying the rent are to change the locks of the premises and more so to remove the tenant’s property without any order from the court. Landlords may be accountable to the court costs and more so the lawyer’s fees if they will tend to evict a tenant without going through the legal process.

Thirdly, you are required to know that lease can be modified default through communications between the landlord and a tenant. Most of the landlords prefer working things out with their tenants other than going through the litigation process since it consumes a lot of time and requires a lot of cash. For the best agreement with the tenant the landlord will have to waive the default and think of changing the lease. Note that all the agreement should be written down for reference.

– Getting Started & Next Steps

The Essentials of – Breaking Down the Basics

Read More

The Beginner’s Guide to

Tips for Making Extra money

If you usually have a fixed salary, it might be so hard for you to think of purchasing some items. Therefore, for you to easily purchase some of the items which you might have desired to buy then you should think of how you will make extra money. Deliberating on the tips which are outlined below will easily help you know some of the crucial ways which can help you make extra money.

Firstly, you should think of your junk cars. If you do not know what to do with your junk cars then it is wise to think of how you will make extra money through them. Never identify a firm which will offer less price for purchasing your junk cars if you desire to make good extra money. Never think of having any deal with a company which will not offer the best price as you might have expected while selling your junk cars. Since there are so many companies mainly buys junk cars, if you identify the one which is not reliable enough then you might end up not fulfilling your desires as you might have expected. If you do not have junk cars, then this essential way cannot be effective to you when it comes to making extra money.

Selling your plasma is the second essential way which you can use to make extra money as you might have desired. This is so vital since you will be helping someone and at the same time make extra money which you can top up on your salary as you might have desired. Therefore, as you are going to draw your blood you should know the minimal time which will be taken to complete this process. If you are under the age of eighteen years then you might not be allowed to sell your plasma, and therefore this guide might not be crucial to you. You should first set the amount which you will require to for you to sell your plasma so that you may identify the right plasma center which will meet your expectations. If you are not healthy enough then you should not think of selling your plasma even though you might desire to make extra money.

The third important crucial way which is explored in this article that you can use to make extra money is by utilizing cashback. If you think of using a rewards card as a credit card you can be guaranteed of getting free money.

The explored above are some of the ways which you can use to make extra money only if you reflect on them quickly.

Read More